Peak Astra Wireless PMU Machine with 2 Battery Packs – Pick Color Ultimate Tattoo Supply
The Peak Astra PMU Machine lets you discover beauty without boundaries. This machine is designed to be versatile in every way, so you can perform the best way for you to achieve outstanding results.
With the Astra, you can switch easily between a cord-free and RCA setup. With the wireless option, you’ll enjoy all the perks of PMU without any cords to trip over or limitations in your movement. With the RCA option, you’ll remove any backweight from the end of your machine, giving you optimal balance.
The Astra also comes with three cams, so you can change your stroke between procedures. The PMU machine comes equipped with a 4mm stroke, but simply swap that out for a 2.5mm or 3.5mm cam according to your preference.
Lightweight and slender, the Astra machine is optimized for PMU and perfectly designed with a textured, ergonomic grip to give you control over your work.
STYLE RECOMMENDATIONS BY STROKE
Astra Stroke Length
- Lightweight pen-style modular PMU machine
- Aluminum construction and lightweight body
- Machine Weight (with battery): 113g (~4oz)
- Machine Weight (without battery): 90g (~3. 2oz)
- Machine Length: 5”
- Grip Diameter: 19mm
- 8v 6500rpm motor
- Voltage Range: 4v–12v; recommended not to exceed 10v
- Jumpstart Voltage: 9v in 0.3 seconds
- Use for PMU lips, brows, eyeliner, and areola work
- Comes equipped with rechargeable battery pack
- Also comes with detachable RCA module for wired setup
- Also equipped with a tapered 13mm diameter grip
- Average Run Time: ~3–5 hours (with standard settings)
- Battery is chargeable by USB-C
- Equipped with 2 PowerPack batteries, 1 RCA module, 1 USB-C charging cable, 2 spare cams, 2 O-Rings, 1 Allen key, and 1 RCA cord
- Compatible with all universal needle cartridges, including Vertix, Cerus, Kwadron Optima, Tina Davies, & Brow Daddy
- Peak Astra with 1 battery pack available here
- Purchase a spare battery for your Peak Astra here
Peak WiFi | Broadband Provider
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What is 5G? | Juniper Networks
What is 5G?
5G is the fifth generation of wireless technology. 5G is the new global wireless standard after 4G. It enables the creation of a new type of network that delivers faster data rates, lower latency, and supports more users, devices, and services, all at the same time being more efficient.
5G supports three broad categories of use cases.
- Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) High bandwidth wireless services.
- Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC) – ultra-reliable and low latency communications for mission-critical applications.
- Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) – Reliable communications for billions of sensors and control devices.
5G peak downlink data rates can reach 20Gbps, which is 20 times the 4G LTE peak rate of 1Gbps. 5G networks are predicted to deliver 10x to 100x faster user interactions, support 10x to 100x more connected devices than 4G networks, and ultra-low latency of the order of 1 millisecond (ms).
The 5G era will go beyond improving network performance and speed, bringing new innovative and improved connectivity to users. 5G can enhance business application performance while delivering new user interfaces and services in areas such as augmented, virtual, and mixed reality (AR, VR, and MR) applications, video conferencing, industrial automation, self-driving cars, and connected medical devices.
What problems does 5G solve?
Service providers will use 5G to handle ever-increasing data traffic thanks to significant cost-per-bit reductions. 5G also allows service providers to prevent the decline in average revenue per subscriber (ARPU) by providing new 5G services to consumers, government and businesses.
Enterprises are expected to be the biggest beneficiaries of 5G technologies, benefiting from increased performance, flexibility and scalability of their services. For example, the biggest expected change is likely to occur in industrial automation, where factories will be serviced by wirelessly controlled robots. In such environments, even the smallest moving parts will be monitored, operated and controlled wirelessly within the production line.
Healthcare is another major industry using 5G networks. Remote surgery or networked ambulances can help save lives where doctors can’t reach. With the power of 5G, retailers will offer new experiences (such as AR, VR, and MR) when testing, simulating, and purchasing products, both in and out of traditional stores.
Consumer-side cloud gaming is a new application that does not require heavy gaming clients and games are directly rendered on the edge of the 5G network. AR and VR traffic now account for approximately 20% of the traffic in some early 5G deployments. The use of fixed radio access (FWA) to provide residential 5G broadband services is also gaining momentum.
From a government perspective, smart cities, utilities and public safety agencies can greatly benefit from 5G. Connected vehicles and vehicle solutions can help improve road safety and save lives.
How 5G works
5G networks require new technology components to meet new performance and latency requirements.
- New Spectrum: 5G networks require new spectrum frequencies above 6 GHz to achieve high data rates: centimeter (6 to 30 GHz) and millimeter (more than 30 GHz). 5G networks will also be rolled out in frequency bands below 6 GHz. The lower frequency bands provide coverage, while the higher bands provide throughput.
- Massive MIMO: Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) is a method of multiplying the bandwidth of a radio link using multiple transmit and receive antennas. Massive MIMO, on the other hand, is a MIMO system with a particularly large number of antennas (e. g. 8, 16, 64, 128, etc.). Massive MIMO increases the spectral efficiency and network coverage.
- 5G New Radio (5G NR): 5G NR is a new 5G radio access technology developed by the 3GPP consortium for the 5G mobile network. 5G NR technology is based on the ultra-lean design principle to reduce signal transmission and power consumption. It is also designed around a flexible loop structure, which enables efficient multiplexing of a variety of 5G services and forward compatibility with future 5G services.
- Open RAN:2 Open RAN is an open radio access network. In particular, Open RAN is a permanent change in the architecture of mobile networks that allows service providers to use non-proprietary sub-components from various vendors. Specific proprietary components such as remote radio nodes (RRHs) and baseband units (BBUs) are now disaggregated into centralized units (CUs), distributed units (DUs) and radio units (RUs). With Open RAN, new disaggregated functions can also be virtualized or containerized. The O-RAN Alliance is taking a step forward to make the interfaces between these components open and interoperable.
- 5G Core Network (5 GC): According to the 3GPP standards, the 5GC network is based on a service-based architecture. All core network features are cloud-based, including separation of user and control planes, stateless networking, open interfaces and APIs. Core network features are easy to deploy, upgrade, and scale to launch new services at a lower cost.
- 5G transport network: New 5G network use cases such as eMBB, URLLC and mMTC require a transport network that can handle not only the huge amount of traffic but also the wide range of network characteristics in each scenario. It must meet the needs of a growing variety of devices, services and new business models. For high capacity, transport networks must support 25G, N x 25G at the access/pre-aggregation layer, 100G, N x 100G at the aggregation layer, and up to 400G at the service provider’s core network. In addition, the transport network must meet stringent timing requirements to keep latency below 10ms.
- Network segmentation: This method allows multiple independent end-to-end logical networks to be used in a common physical infrastructure. Each layer can provide a specific quality of service (QoS) for a service or application. The network layer may cover several parts of the network (access network, core network, and transport network).
- Edge Computing: Edge computing brings compute, network, and storage resources closer to subscribers and end users. Closer proximity improves response time and allows for more efficient bandwidth usage. Edge computing, also known as the edge cloud, can be deployed on customer premises such as enterprises and manufacturing facilities managed or hosted by a service provider.
- Telecom cloud: As an open platform, the telecom cloud helps service providers avoid being dependent on a single vendor and allows them to benefit from a rich ecosystem of cloud features that improve infrastructure, improve operations, and increase service speed. The telecommunications cloud enables service flexibility and rapid adoption of service innovations, enabling service providers to leverage a new wave of applications and services that will revitalize their business models.
- Security: 5G, IoT, network segmentation, and edge computing introduce new attack vectors. Threats can come from anywhere and are increasing in number, frequency and sophistication. If the current approach to security is not improved, the security of 5G networks can become a performance bottleneck. Isolated systems and manual responses are no longer effective. A comprehensive approach is needed that provides a complete view of the network and the external ecosystem in order to fully understand the threats, dynamically adapt and consistently apply security policies throughout the network.
- Management and Orchestration (MANO): 5G networks can significantly increase the number of connected end-user devices, nodes and services. It is not possible to manage network operations manually with the required scale and quality. The only practical way to handle the scale and complexity of future cloud and 5G networks is to automate operations with full support for Open APIs for multi-tenant, multi-cloud environments, generating a constant flow of knowledge through AI and ML.
Innovative 5G network technologies
5G is part of a broader revolution that also includes cloud and automation technologies to create a more reliable and resilient platform for service providers. Juniper Networks believes that 5G networks alone are not enough to transform the business of service providers. To truly understand the value of these technologies and realize the opportunities they promise, service providers must consider the co-opportunities of cloud, 5G and automation. These technologies rely on each other, and in some cases even depend on each other.
For example, many of the benefits of 5G cannot be optimized without moving the infrastructure to the cloud, be it telecom cloud and NFVI, distributed edge cloud, or virtualized, containerized (VNF/CNF) or disaggregated functions. While 5G and the cloud together provide a quantum leap in terms of scale, performance, and agility, they also increase operational complexity, which can be simplified and managed only through network automation.
5G and the cloud promise new opportunities for consumers and businesses. To thrive in today’s 5G/multi-cloud world, service providers need a strategy that simplifies network operations and delivers a differentiated customer experience. Juniper refers to this phenomenon as interaction-oriented networks.
Our approach to service-oriented networks for service providers is based on three main solution areas:
• Scalable IP Services Matrix for Efficient IP Transport
• Cloud Approach to Simplify Telecom and Edge Cloud
• Managed Enterprise Services for Quality of Service
Each of these solution areas is based on our customers:
• Connected Security Protects users, devices, applications, and infrastructure
•Smart automation makes it easy to improve customer experiences
What is the difference between 4G and 5G networks?
5G networks are designed for downlink data transmission with peak speeds up to 20 Gbps, which is 20 times the 1 Gbps peak speed of 4G LTE networks. In addition, 5G is expected to allow users to transfer data at a faster rate (10 to 100 times), support more connected devices than 4G (10 to 100 times), and provide ultra-low latency of the order of 1 milliseconds (ms). 5G provides innovative user experiences and services in areas such as augmented reality, virtual reality, mixed reality applications, industrial automation, autonomous cars, and connected medical devices.
Why do service providers need a 5G network?
5G will be required by service providers to significantly reduce the cost per bit when handling the ever-increasing amount of data traffic. The 5G network also allows service providers to prevent the decline in average revenue per subscriber by providing consumers, governments and enterprises with new 5G-based services.
What additional technologies are needed to provide 5G networks?
The following technologies are helping to meet the new bandwidth and latency requirements of 5G:
5G backhaul network: 5G networks need a backhaul network that can not only handle the huge increase in traffic, but also respond to a wide range of network characteristics for each specific use case.
Automated operation: The 5G network greatly increases the number of connected end-user devices, nodes and services. The only practical way to manage the scale and complexity of future cloud and 5G networks is to automate operations by creating a continuous flow of information through the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
Network segmentation: Network segmentation allows you to run multiple independent end-to-end logical networks on a common physical infrastructure, where each segment can provide quality of service (QoS) for a particular service or application.
Telecommunications cloud: An open telecommunications cloud platform helps service providers avoid being tied to one vendor and capitalize on a rich ecosystem of cloud features to deliver new 5G applications and services.
Security: 5G, IoT, network segmentation, and edge computing introduce new attack vectors. The unified security approach provides absolute threat protection by providing a complete picture of the network and its external ecosystem, and dynamically adapting and enforcing security policies across the entire network.
What 5G technologies, solutions and products does Juniper offer?
Juniper provides the building blocks to enable service providers to transform their business with 5G networks, leveraging our proven product portfolio and offerings from strategic partners.
- Scalable IP Services Matrix with Network Segmentation for IP Transport
- Cloud Solutions to Simplify Telecom and Edge Cloud
- Managed Enterprise Services for Guaranteed Quality of Service
- Smart automation makes it easy to improve customer experience
- Connected Security Protects Users, Devices, Applications and Infrastructure
What’s inside the Wi-Fi hotspot? SoC 9 concept0001
Every IT specialist implementing Wi-Fi for the first time had to deal with the fact that points of comparable service (MIMO 3×3, 802.11AC, POE, SSID) can differ in price by an order of magnitude. Let’s see how the models can actually differ and where which architectural solution is better to apply!
Choosing an access point (AP) for a wireless network should take into account not only software capabilities, but also hardware “stuffing”. Often it is in the hardware that the reason for the discrepancy between the real capabilities of the AP and the declared ones lies.
The most common problems with Wi-Fi networks are poor performance (drop in network data transfer speed), network connection hangs, inability to connect to the network. Typically, network administrators look for the cause of software problems or network misconfigurations. But often the source of problems is the access point (AP) hardware. In this case, large sums were directed to the purchase of equipment that is not suitable for solving the problems of the enterprise.
When designing a network, take into account the network capacity (number of users) and select the appropriate APs. Sometimes the actual operation of Wi-Fi becomes an unpleasant surprise when it turns out that the access points are not able to cope with the load. For example, the number of users is as advertised for the AP, but the users are actively streaming video, making voice calls, or there are many more connections in the guest area than expected during design.
Here, there are differences in the hardware “stuffing” of access points, which are data processing devices and, accordingly, require high-performance components built on the appropriate architecture. The vast majority of low cost single band APs are unable to support more than 10 users. Dual-band single-chip analogs allow to some extent to increase the number of users by redistributing the load between the ranges. But the first peak load and the problems with the network show that in order to build a reliable WI-Fi network, you need to know more about the “stuffing” of the access point.
Any electronic device based on integrated circuits with embedded software is designed to minimize the four main factors that increase the price of the device and the cost of its operation. First of all, it is necessary to reduce the number of transistors and the clock frequency – the smaller, the lower the power consumption and heat dissipation. The most important factor is the reduction of software development time, because a product that is late to enter the market often brings only losses. In many cases, software development takes longer and costs more than hardware development. In addition, it is important to reduce the one-time costs of R&D and new product testing (NRE). Sometimes a solution looks very promising, but NRE is too expensive and companies prefer to use older technologies.
All of this is important to know in order to understand why access points use certain hardware solutions, because different approaches are used to minimize all four factors. Versatile – use microcontrollers (MCUs) that can be adapted to a wide range of applications. But MCUs only make efficient use of transistors and clock speed with compact code. Another approach uses digital signal processors (DSPs), chips that contain the basic functions of many signal processing algorithms. The DSP has simpler code than the MCU and uses clocks and transistors more efficiently.
ASICs combine all electronic components to perform specific tasks. They are expensive and time consuming to develop, but they use a minimum of components, have high performance and low power consumption. An SoC (system on a chip) architecture is an integrated ASIC family that contains one or more processor cores, MCUs, DSPs, and other components. Simply put, if an ASIC has embedded processor cores, then it is an SoC.
It is on the basis of the above schemes that most electronic devices are built, including access points for wireless networks. Access point hardware performs three types of signal processing: radio frequency, modulation, MAC/L2/packets. The first two types are mainly related to modulation / demodulation. The third provides 802.11 MAC and L2 protocols, packet processing and various functions, such as QoS or a firewall. Working with radio frequencies and modulation is provided by the so-called radio module, which takes on part of the MAC / L2 tasks that require high speed (processing of ACK or RTS / CTS signals). Most of the MAC/L2/packet processing is done by the host module with CPU.
SoC architecture usually uses two chips: a host module with an integrated radio module and a separate radio module, mainly manufactured by large manufacturing companies (Qualcomm, Broadcom and others). Each radio can operate on different frequencies, but in this case, the performance of the AP is poor, so the radios are fixed to operate on one of the frequencies: 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. When creating a Wi-Fi network, the load on the radio modules should be taken into account.
Figure 1. In single-chip SOC access points, all calculations are performed by one chip, including a processor
. The EAP120 has one 2.4GHz radio with 300Mbps throughput, while the EAP220 has two 2.4GHz and 5GHz radios with 300Mbps each. If all users work on the same frequency, for example 2.4 GHz, SoC APs will hardly provide connectivity for 15-25 users – speed and connection problems will begin. The maximum load on such SOCs with a dense arrangement of modules leads to an increase in heat dissipation. As a result, access point failures begin: sharp drops in speed, disconnections, etc. This can lead to an unpleasant situation when, after network deployment, it turns out that during periods of peak load or in places with high traffic (conference areas, guest rooms premises) SOC APs are unable to provide stable communications. In this case, network administrators usually spend a lot of effort searching for the cause of problems, while the cause of failures is in the wrong hardware.
Figure 2. Access point AP TP-Link EAP120. Based on the Atheros AR9350
SoC chip At first glance, it seems that the problem can be solved by increasing the number of access points, but this increases the cost of the system, creates problems with mutual radio interference, power supply, roaming when moving from one AP to another, and etc. Therefore, in terms of performance, an access point with more productive hardware is preferable.
The advantage of SoC in an affordable price. Such points can work normally with a small load in home networks and small offices.
Access points also often use a separate CPU host architecture. In this case, a separate host processor with RAM modules is required, which significantly increases the cost of the solution and requires a more powerful power source. But a single CPU has high processing power and can, for example, provide hardware support for encryption, network packet inspection and filtering (DPI data protection) and much more.
Figure 3. A simple diagram of an access point with two radio modules and a separate CPU . It is based on three radio modules (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, 300 Mbps each) and a high-performance CAVIUM Octeon Plus MIPS processor at a frequency of 500 MHz. Thanks to this, the AP 7131N can be used in high-load Wi-Fi networks. The powerful AP not only provides high-speed connectivity for more than 250 users, but also provides additional features. These include working in the Mesh network, built-in intrusion detection and protection algorithms. In the case of conventional SOC APs, additional resources, mainly the controller, will be required to implement this functionality, which will negatively affect the security and congestion of the wireless network.
Figure 4. Motorola AP 7131N Access Point
ASIC access points with separate CPUs and DSPs are more expensive than simpler solutions based on a single SOC chip. It’s not just the cost of additional electronic components. Most of the cost of an AP comes from software that provides interaction between the CPU and radio modules, as well as many additional networking functions that are not available with conventional SOC APs. For example, the Motorola AP 7131N can act as a “first line” of defense against intruders by acting as a detector in intrusion prevention systems (WIPS).
WIPS is different from the simple intrusion detection protocols (WIDS) available for AP SOCs like TP-Link EAP120. WIPS checks Wi-Fi network activity in real time to prevent the most dangerous attacks, including MAC address spoofing and man-in-the-middle attacks. WIPS requires much more performance from the access point and more sophisticated software to automatically block a hacker’s attack before the attack reaches its target. Therefore, WIPS requires high-performance APs with a separate CPU, like the Motorola AP 7131N.
Performance and security
Thus, APs with a separate CPU are better suited for corporate networks that require security, reliability, and high performance (high bandwidth, large number of users, significant video and voice traffic). Access points with ASIC architecture and separate CPUs and DSPs have higher performance, as seen in the Motorola AP 7131N. This AP became the world’s first access point, which hit the Guinness Book of Records as the most powerful device of its kind. One AP 7131N was able to stream video from 84 laptops.